Professional achievement combined with life long personal happiness.
A brilliant scholar he was also a man of such charm that he worked with great success as a diplomat.
But more than anything, he was an artist of the highest rank, whose influence spread through the centuries.
It is Rubens great body of work that makes him possibly the greatest of all Dutch and Flemish old masters.
In 1566 in Flemish city Antwerp, Protestant riots broke up against Spanish rule. Outraged King Philip of Spain moved to crush the rebellion. By 1571 existed the clear destination between Protestant Holland to the North and Catholic Flanders to the south.
Wealthy citizen of Flemish Antwerp Jan Rubens originally Catholic, he converted to Protestantism only to flee to German city of Cologne in 1568. Where he reconverted to Catholicism and worked as legal advisor to the princess of Orange. 3 years later, following the adulteress affairs with the princes, Jan Rubens was exhale to the town of Segal, 10 years later he died. And his widow now returned to Antwerp with 3 remaining dependent children Philip, Peter-Paul Rubens and a daughter.
Back to Antwerp there was no doubt with Peter Paul religious identity, raised as a Catholic and his devotion to the Roman church would remain with him throughout his life. Right religion, write people, members of the church, rules of the city.
Therefore where all the major art commissions come up, he would be the prime candidate to whom have been given the job.
His religious believes has great impact on both his personal and artistic life.
He lived a moderate and respectable life.
His works are meant to be seen as aids to prayer and meditation and reinforce believe as well.
He is the great interpreters of counter reformation.
But if you think about his personal believe, he is a man who thought more broadly than dogmatic religious frame.
One could really say that Rubens would not have become a painter if he would not been a catholic.
By the end of 1590's Rubens professional way was clear, from 11 school in classical literature and his real passion was clear - painting.
In early teens - printer to local artist, later pupil in Otto Van Veen’s studio. Otto studied in Italy and introduced Rubens to engravings of great Italian masters. In his early works, we could clearly identify his influence from Rafael.
Adam and Eve in paradise and judgment of Paris were both inspired by this great Renaissance painter.
By this time he was established painter on his own right.
The Judgement of Paris about 1597-9, Panel
Interest in classical themes, composition and poses is already evident, before his Italian trip.
Paris, the prince of Troy awards the Venus, goddess of love with golden apple.
-are grouped as the tree graces
But expression of Juno is anything but graceful, she wanted to bribe Paris with wealth but he had preferred Venuses bribe with Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world. Venus accompanied with her son Cupid and crowned by Putto.
Spectators - river God and nymph. Satires represent the unbribal lust and desire. If you compare to later works, you will see that this work is youth with blue background. Paris back invites us to identify with him as he makes up his mind.
But he knew he had to experience great Italian masters directly.
In May 1600 at age 22 he headed south. 2 moths later he arrived at his Italian destination Venice!
In 16th cent Venice was a home for greatest painters of the renaissance, Giorgone, Titian, Veronese - had vibrant approach to light and color with freedom of brushwork quite different from Florentine masters of the age.
Young Rubens especially appreciated Titian, in was an admiration he would never loose.
- Sense of color, more vibrant
- Painted, free use of paint brush
- The sense of light
Particularly taken by Ferrari church in Venice altarpiece, monumental display of color and action.
In 1601 he arrived to the city, which is center of artistic achievement Rome.
He spent the great deal of time drawing the classical sculptures in particular. And the paintings onwards, the ancient source can clearly be seen. He have been able to study art of high Renaissance (Michelangelo and Rafael).
But he also appreciated more contemporary work, including Carracci and Caravaggio.
At the time these artists were reacting agains artificially of mannerism that characterised much of the late 16th cent paintings.
New naturalism in figure depiction - it would become known as art of the baroque.
New readings of biblical subjects, dinamism.
Lighting, animated groups become involved in a subject.
Rubens work becomes the typical of Baroque in the way that is very dynamic, tremendous sense of energy, unified message and subject that lands on naturalism
He is a great story teller, the painting that impresses viewer with the drama, the truth, story of the saints and of course Christ himself
1603 Duke of Mantua, apart of appointed him as a court painter, he acknowledge Rubens charm of the diplomat.
Travel to Spain to Philip of Spain.
Artists diplomats, the level of diplomatic activity that he was engaged in, high ambassadorial level.
Flemish, Spanish, French, Latin, Italian. - diplomatic language
Important court visitors during his visit
Giovanni Carlo Doria, prestige
Duke Albert and Infanta Isabella 500 Florence a year court painter, back in Antwerp.
1609 married 19 old Isabela Brant
Happy marriage, enduring visual celebration of loving couple
Trust and fidelity interlocking hands
Courtier, gentleman artist image
1610 home. Collection of antiques. Formal paining duties - first commission
Many workers for churches, altarpieces, greatest religious painter
Samson and Delilah, about 1609-10
Samson, the Jewish hero famed for great physical strength and favourited female charm. Fall in love with enemy Philistine
Classical sculpture in Italy
8 years trip in Italy
Multiple light sources dramatising the moment - confusion of shadows.
Enhanced the atmosphere of seduction
Protective, remorse sign, triumph and pity.
Above Mental piece
Antwerp studio was well organised system where artist was very much in charge.
Administrator - film director or factory director
Brand name, stamp, style of painting
Production line work, assistance
Sketches, hang over to work out and finish
1620 spread, celebrated artist
1621 Phillip III died and his Parton Duke Albert as well. Isabella appointed as her special envoy.
Next 10 years diplomacy, treaty of England, France and Spain
He came as a representative of Spanish Netherlands but of course orders came from Madrid.
Got along very well with Charle I
The greatest art collector of the day and so Charles was happy to have his as as artist.
Portrait of Suzana, friend's wife, sense if light
It captured the sitter s feminine modesty
Sheerness and luminescence of her skin tone, almost rococo in colouring
Greater contract from one color to another
2 or 3 basic colours patterns
Few multiple sources of light
1626 Isabela died
Desire to travel
England and Spain peace
Very wealthy, sold antique collection to Duke of Beckanham
1630 returned from London
King of Spain, King of England, queen mother of France
1630's London White Hall Banqueting hall
Minerva Protects Pax from Mars ('Peace and War’), 1629-30 Oil on canvas, 203.5 x 298 cm Courtesy of The National Gallery, London
Look up from this link:
1630 marries Helena. He was 53 and young wife - 16
in 10 years 5 children
Often Subject of later works
Caste of Stein countryside
Puts his money to beautiful land and house, life of county gentleman
The result was remarkable series of the landscapes
Time of fully explore the light and color of Flemish outdoor life
Spence if unification
19th cent Constable: “Landscapes are Rube’s greatest achievement"
Youtube channel The Dutch Masters
"Abstract paintings are fictitious models becau they visualise a reality which we can neither see nor describe but which we may nevertheless conclude exists. We attach negative names to this reality, the unknown, the un-graspable the infinite, and for thousands of years we have depicted it in terms of substitute images like heaven and hell, gods and devils. With abstract painting we create a better means of approaching what can be neither seen nor understood because abstract painting illustrates with the greatest clarity, that is to say with all the means at the disposal of art, nothing" (G. Richter, 'Statement', in Documenta 7, vol. I, Kassel, 1982, pp. 84-85).
Rendered in a luxuriant palette, Abstraktes Bild is a striking example of one of Gerhard Richter's celebrated abstract paintings. Chromatically arresting, a wave of yellow and emerald paint glides across the canvas surface into a maelstrom of crimson reds and canary yellows. The sense of dynamism is palpable as the viewer can trace how Richter ranged across the surface at various moments in the painting's odyssey. Troubled by modern and abstract art's utopic claims, in Abstraktes Bild the artist sought to regain the conditions of genuine experience. For Richter, this meant denying his own subjectivity by avoiding a dominant perspective and any compositional hierarchy. relating the program for abstract paintings, Richter said: 'abstract paintings are fictitious models because they visualise a reality which we can neither see nor describe but which we may nevertheless conclude exists. We attach negative names to this reality, the unknown, the un-graspable the infinite, and for thousands of years we have depicted it in terms of substitute images like heaven and hell, gods and devils. With abstract painting we create a better means of approaching what can be neither seen nor understood because abstract painting illustrates with the greatest clarity, that is to say with all the means at the disposal of art, 'nothing (G. Richter, 'Statement' in Documenta 7, vol. I, Kassel 1982, pp. 84-5) Considered by the artist to be his first painting, Tisch (able, 1962, a monochrome painting of a table which Richter worked over with swirls of grey paint to cancel the original image, can be seen as a manifesto of addition and reduction. Almost coming in a full circle, in the early 1980s Richter returned to this sequential dialectic of construction and destruction in his abstract paintings such as Abstraktes Bild.
Operating without a photographic source, Richter's quasi self-generating abstraction attempts to distance the role of the artist, a condition heightened by the use of his signature squeegees. Using this tool in Abstraktes Bild, Richter mechanically pulled a curtain of lemon yellow paint over the canvas creating a buttery terrain that melts away as the eye is drawn deep into sapphire and charcoal ravines. Reflective of Richter's multifarious technique, elsewhere ruby red and chartreuse have been applied wet on wet whilst other areas of the painting's skin have been flayed creating striking fissions that streak through the outermost layer, revealing black and vermillion striated fossils.
Describing this method in interview Richter explained that a picture like this is painted in different layers, separated by intervals of time. The first layer mostly represents the it background, which has a photographic illusionistic look to though done without using a photograph. This first, smooth, soft-edged paint surface is like a finished picture; but after a while I decide that I understand it or have seen enough of it, and in the next stage of painting I partly destroy it, partly add to it; and so it goes on at intervals, till there is nothing more to do and the picture is finished. By then it is a something which I understand in the same way it confronts me, as both ncomprehensible and self-sufficient. An attempt to jump over my own shadow.. At that stage the whole thing looks very spontaneous. But in between there are usually long intervals of time, and those destroy a mood. It is a highly planned kind of spontaneity' (G. Richter, 1984, quoted in H. U. obrist (ed.), Gerhard Richter: The Daily Practice of Painting. Writings and Interviews 1962-1993, London 1995, p. 112) Bursting with energy, Abstraktes Bild can be seen to reflect the excitement surrounding Richter's work at this time. The late 1980s was a period of intense market and international interest in Richter's work; in 1986 he had his first large- scale touring retrospective at Kunsthalle Dusseldorf that also travelled to Berlin, Bern and Vienna and in 1988 Richter had his first large-scale retrospective in Canada and America, opening at Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto and touring to Chicago, Washington and San Fransisco. Highlighting Richter's singular artistic rank at this moment the leading German magazine Der Spiegel wrote: 'No one else has explored the potential of painting in an age of mass photography in as coolly engaged and intelligent a manner as he has, or has been as tough and as ready to experiment as he is' Hohmeyer, 'Einfach ein Bild', Der Spiegel, January 20, 1986, p. 160
Sir Peter Paul Rubens was born 1577 Siegen, Germany. Died 1640 Antwerp, Belgium. Painted in Antwerp. Rome, Madrid, Paris and London.
Born at Siegen, Westphalia, now part of Germany, Peter Paul Rubens was brought up in Antwerp in the Spanish Netherlands. Originally intended for the law, he studied painting under Tobias Verhaecht, AdamVan Noort and Otto Vaenius and was admitted into the Antwerp painters' guild in 1598. From 1600 to 1608 he was court painter to Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, and travelled all over Italy Spain, furthering his studies and also executing paintings for various churches. Shortly after his return to Antwerp he was appointed court painter to Archduke Albrecht of the Netherlands. In the last years of his life he combined painting with diplomatic missions which took him to France, Spain and England in many fine and resulted portraits, as well as his larger religious pieces. He was knighted by both Charles I and Philip IV of Spain. In 1630 he retired from the court to Steen and devoted the last years of his life to landscape painting. Movement Flemish School other Works Samson and Delilah; The Descent from the Cross; Peace and War Influences Tobias Verhaecht, Adam Van Noort.
Source: Nick Wells, History of Art, The Foundry
Just an introduction and more to follow.
Visit our event in the National Gallery on the 28th of September - CALENDAR
The World's Most Valuable Private collection of Treasures Revealed at the LAPADA Art & Antiques Fair
On display at the LAPADA Arts & Antiques Fair, this year, will be highlights from the world's most comprehensive and valuable private collection of teawares. The exhibition will shed light on the extraordinary history of tea and the rich material culture that it has inspired. It will be the first public exhibition of the impressive collection in the UK, which has been on display only once before at the National Museum of Kazakhstan in 2015. Comprising more than 1,700 objects, the Chitra Collection includes individual pieces worth in excess of £1 million. The Chitra Collection curator, Olivia Fryman, has chosen a selection of objects that illustrate four crucial periods in the history of tea and reveal the importance and diversity of tea-drinking customs across the world.
1. Liquid Jade explores the origins of tea in early China and Japan. According to Chinese the mythical Emperor Shen Nung who is thought to have ruled around 5000 ago. years encouraged the cultivation of tea after discovering its health giving properties. By the time the first book on tea, The chaing, was written in 780 AD, the drink had spread to Japan where its preparation was ritualised in tea ceremonies
2. Tea comes to Europe focuses on the establishment of tea drinking in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The craze for tea led to a demand for Chinese and Japanese porcelain t s that initially could not be replicated by European potters. At the same time, European artists and manufacturers strove to create their own tea accoutrements to suit Western tastes and drinking habits
3. Tea and Empire explores the important role of tea in the history of the British Empire; the cultivation of new tea plantations in India, the Opium Wars and the American Revolution.
4. Global Tea Culture showcases a selection of teawares produced in Europe, Russia and America during the 19th century when tea gradually became a feature of everyday social and domestic life, rather than an elite ritual enjoyed by the privileged few.
Notable pieces in the exhibition include a Fabergé tea caddy, an Adam Loofs teapot, a Paul de Lamerie silver kettle, a hare's fur tea bowl and an Odiot tea set.
The collection was amassed by Nirmal Kumar Sethia, the London-based collector and businessman with the aim of preserving the history of tea. In his own words, "The Chitra Collection to inspire generations of tea lovers long after I'm gone. It is my wish that, for centuries to come, the world will be able to appreciate and experience the beauty and significance of tea art and culture.
Mr Sethia has a passion for tea, which began at 14 when he worked as an apprentice tea buyer in London. At 16 he tapped into his entrepreneurial skills and started his own tea buying business Calcutta, India. He later bought a tea garden Assam, where he lived, to immerse himself in every aspect of the tea making process but gave up this career path at 24 when he began working for the family business.
However, tea remained Mr Sethia's passion and in 2000 he started the high-end luxury tea company Newby Teas. This, in turn, led him to found the Chitra Collection of antique teawares in 2011, naming it in honour of his late wife.
Source: Cultural Agenda, Lapada Art Fair press release.
Marcel-Beronneau (Bordeaux 1869 - Syne-sur-Mer 1937) was a student of Gustave Moreau; like his master, Beronneau painted ornate scenes and hypnotic figures from mythology and exoticised history. He exhibited from 1895 forward both at the Salon and the later at the salons des Indépendants, garnering medals in 1900, 1913 and 1926.
The Salome or perhaps Judith depicted here, in contrast to Moreau’s paintings of the subject, confidently confronts the viewer and not the ghost of the Baptiste. She appears steely and even satisfied – not remorseful and upset (as she is most often depicted by Moreau). Unquestionably empowered, Beronneau’s Judean princess wears armour and holds a sword as if ready for battle, or ready to decapitate the Baptist herself for his slander and rejection.
The character of Salome is more a construction of the Western canon than a religious figure. The New Testament discusses the ‘Daughter of Herodias’, without ever naming her. The Gospel of Mark recounts that Herodias bore a grudge against John the Baptist’s denouncement of Herod as unlawfully married:
‘On Herod’s birthday, the daughter of Herodias danced before them: and pleased Herod. Whereupon he promised with an oath, to give her whatsoever she would ask of him. But she being instructed before by her mother, said: Give me here in a dish the head of John the Baptist.. And his head was brought in a dish: and it was given to the damsel, and she brought it to her mother.’
Christianity used the character, later called Salome, to represent the dangers of female seductiveness and irrationality, and labelled the dance cited in the New Testament ‘erotic.’ Not until Oscar Wilde’s 1891 play, however, did Salome perform the renowned ‘dance of the seven veils’. Symbolist painters drew their Salome as much from Wilde as from biblical texts; Beronneau treated the subject, in diverse compositions, on several occasions.
Pierre-Amédée Marcel-Beronneau was born in Bordeaux in July 1869, the son of a locksmith. Aged twenty he enrolled at the École Municipale des Beaux-Arts. He soon left Bordeaux for Paris, having won a scholarship worth 1000 francs in 1890 from his hometown. In Paris Beronneau enrolled in the École des Arts Décoratifs under Eugène Thirion. The young artist was such a success at art school that they recommended the city of Bordeaux continue to fund his education; two years later they increased his stipend to 1500 francs. Paul Berthelot, in an article in the journal de la Gironde in 1892 commented enthusiastically that Beronneau’s ‘exposition est remarquable. Il réussit très bien le travail d’étude comme ce grand panneau, l’Education morale (…). Mais la personnalité de M. Béronneau se dégage plus fortement, à mon sens, dans ces petites pages décoratives où l’invention pittoresque combinée avec la stylisation de la fleur, sans japonisme, a produit de petites merveilles’
After moving to 12 rue de l’Abbaye in Paris, Beronneau was accepted on November 23, 1892 in the workshop of Gustave Moreau at the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts, where met Georges Rouault. The two artists would be become close friends and share a studio for years on Boulevard Montparnasse. In 1893, Beronneau won his second premier grand prix des Arts décoratifs award, ‘pour encourager la poursuite de ses études et de la subvention qui les rend possibles.’ Gustave Moreau wrote the young painter’s letter of recommendation to the Mayor of Bordeaux stating ‘M. Béronneau, my student, is an excellent worker, extremely talented and worthy in all respects of the greatest interest shown him.’
Beronneau first exhibited at the Salon des Artistes français de 1895 with Muse. It is a start of an artistic career that will in part mirror Moreaus’s. Both artists treated the same symbolist themes repeatedly, but asserted in those canvases their own personality and character. Both translated very conventional, long-standing themes into a Symbolist language that remained intelegible enough to continue to appeal to the traditional French artistic hierarchy.
Dans l’atelier 17 au musée de Clermont-Ferrand en 1897,La femme au chat noir 18 au Palais Bourbon en 1898, Heure dernière26 au musée des beaux-arts de Bordeaux en 1899, Douloureuse station 27 au musée de Valence en 1900, Dans l’attente 31 au musée de Bagnères-de-Bigorre en 1903 ou Les œufs sur le plat au musée de Chaumont en 1904. Named Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1914 on the occasion of his exhibition in Ghent, Marcel-Beronneau had also received medals in 1900 and 1913. The artist held exhibitions of his work abroad in Stuttgart in 1901, London and St. Louis in 1904, Montreal in 1909, Ghent in 1913, and again in 1915, and in 1917 in San Francisco, Barcelona and Buenos Aires.
Landscapes, painted intermittently by Marcel-Beronneau throughout his career, were not always particularly Symbolist works – many stand simply as paintings recognisably of the natural world, without concern for literary reference or allegorical construction. If Beronneau’s palette in them is never a mere reflection of nature, neither are his tonalities entirely at odds with it. Beronneau visited Corsica, his subject here around 1920 and from the striking paintings of its sea and crags the artist clearly found the landscape of the island absorbing. He held an exhibition in Paris of these views entitled La Corse en hiver (Corsica in winter) in the early 1920s, some of which also appeared at the salons des indépendants. He returned to Corsica in 1928 and worked for the town of Ajaccio, this work is possibly connected with that visit or his earlier trips to the island.
Source: Exhibition at Biennale des Antiques 2016 in Paris and London based gallery Stair Sainty Gallery , where exhibition of this artist continues.
For art lovers from across the world, the Biennale des Antiquaires has been a must-attend event for more than half a century and quintessentially representative of the French « art de vivre ». September 2016 will mark a turning point in the Biennale's history, and it will become an annual event beginning in 2017, without leaving behind what makes it so exceptional.
At the invitation of the Biennale des Antiquaires, the State Hermitage Museum presented special exhibition.
Comprised of two public collections – one of French prestige, the other international – and the mobilization of larger luxury watch houses via the Fondation de la Haute Horlogerie, the 2016 Biennale will offer three exhibitions of distinct cultural and aesthetic experience. Greeted by a spectacular scenography by Nathalie, collectors and visitors, in addition to discovering the masterpieces, jewelry, and selected objects on display, can also explore three unprecedented exhibitions in the history of the Biennale from Le Mobilier National in France, Russia’s State Hermitage Museum, and the Fondation de la Haute Hologerie in Switzerland.
A CENTURY OFFRENCH ELEGANCE The French decorative arts collection at the Hermitage is considered one of the finest out- side France. It was formed thanks to the close ties between France and Russia over the centuries. It was in Paris that the Russian monarchs and the emissaries of their aristocracy commissio- ned objects of porcelain, silver and gilt bronze. They also received decorative arts pieces as diplomatic gifts. The thirty-four items of French creation exhi- bited within the Biennale give an insight into the contemporary historical events, both in Russia and in France. Simultaneoulsy, these masterpieces reveal the high level of the Hermitage collection of the 18th century a century of French elegance.
Source: visit of Biennale and press release.
Tapestries in the Don Quixote series, about 1719-1745
Workshop of Urban Leyniers (1674-1747) and Daniel Leyniers (1669-1728) Workshop of Urban Ley According to design of Charles-Antoine Coypel (1694-1752) Flanders (Brussels) Wool, linen, silk, woven
EUROPEAN DECORATIVE ART OF THE 18-19TH CENTURIES in the Golden Chamber of the Khanenko Mansion.
The singular elegance and peerless luxury of the flawlessly coordinated ensemble in the room traditionally referred to as the "Golden Chamber" bespeaks the spirit of a Rococo interior rarely encountered. During the first half of the eighteenth century, talented French architects, (in contrast with those of previous generations more dedicated to general building construction), gave their full attention to the task of updating the interiors of the domiciles of the aristocracy.
The indulgent pace of these nouveau lords and ladies of the manor gallant cavaliers and pampered beauties was better suited to homes comprised of smaller rooms and inviting boudoirs. The extended suites of grand rooms of immense proportion, so typical of the unrestrained pathos of classicism, were now out of fashion. Eighteenth century frivolity was affecting the core Rococo principles of the new school of interior decoration, declaring war on symmetry, straight lines, flat surfaces, and squared angles.
Witness the Golden Chamber's pavilion ceiling and its resemblance to the lid of a lady's jewelry box: its edges gracefully curved, its walls jointed. Its delicate pastel color scheme the pistachio of the ceiling, the cyan blue wallpaper, the soft pink marble of the hearth adored with decorative vases combines to express the aesthetic of Rococo. Perhaps the most striking feature of the Golden Chamber is the carved and sculpted whimsy of the ceiling cartouches, doorframe capitals, and mirror ornamentation. It is from the shell and pebble fragments adorning the design from which the style of Rococo, (French: rocaille, "pebble, stone") derives its name. However, this fresh wave of Rococo opulence did not mark the first occasion on which seashells (similar to those incorporated into the carved supraporte, "overdoor"), were employed as ornamentation. In the 17th century, in a determined imitation of nature, artificial grottoes were decorated in much the same manner, with seashells and pebbles fragments. French decorators of the 1830s, however, reinterpretedtheornamental rocaille, applying its playful lines to interior design. The great number of mirrors hung in the Golden Chamber certainly demand our attention, placed as they are, facing one another in an application of the Rococo objective of creating a theatrical mélange and accomplishing the illusion of an extended space. The resulting effect appears to expand the lavishly illustrated green-spaces of the wallpaper and wed them to the trees in the park outside. Standing at the center of such an ingenuously transformed space, guests at French rocaille mansions, (often called 'hotels), may have wondered whether they had tripped into a world 'behind the looking glass: a world of refined and constant festivity, guided by the single rule of joie de vivre. The original lighting ofthe hall, mounted near the mirrors resembles gilded branches covered in silver blossom with petals of an enameled opal. The refined technique of applying 'heated enamel' to metal was lost with time, and only during the decade-long restoration ofthe Golden Chamber commencing in 1987 did restorers resurrect the secret of applying enamel to silver.
Tapestries in the Don Quixote series, about 1719-1745
Workshop of Urban Leyniers (1674-1747) and Daniel Leyniers (1669-1728) Workshop of Urban Ley According to design of Charles-Antoine Coypel (1694-1752) Flanders (Brussels) Wool, linen, silk, woven
Four costly Flemish pile-less wall-coverings, reflecting the Rococo spirit and featuring episodes from Don Quixote are the principle decoration of the Golden Cabinet. Similarly tapestried rooms were common in the exquisite historical interiors of the late nineteenth century. Each piece reproduces an episode from the timeless novel "The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of Lamancha" by 17th century Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. In the sixteenth century, wall-hangings from Brussels were considered to be the finest in Europe, employing in their designs sketches from the Flemish most accomplished artists, including Rubens and Jordaens. With time, the French royal workshop established in Paris by the Gobelin brothers began to rival Brussels. Paris, as the fashion capital of eighteenth century Europe, influenced the Flemish workshops to such a degree that they began to gear production to reflect Parisian tastes now being defined by a Rococo aesthetic Entirely new series incorporating the designs of Parsian artists, were conceived by the Brussels weavers. Around 1714, French court artist Charles-Antoine Kuapel created a cycle of twenty eight illustrations based on the Cervantes novel for the Gobelin workshop. The Kuapel engravings enjoyed great popularity as they illustrated nearly every new edition of "Don Quixote Utilizing these engravings, Flemish artists Jan van Orley and Augustin Coppens designed the figure and landscape templates used in the production of the tapestries exhibited production of the tapestries exhibited in this hall. Both artists worked regularly with noted Brussels Weavers and wall-hanging manufacturers, brothers Daniel and Urban Leyniers. Their work, despite the success of the French Gobelin shop, pleased the French monarch and the Khanenko wall- hangings on the Don Quixote theme were almost certainly woven in the Leynier brothers shop, though the removal of the ornamental edging and the manufacturer's mark have not yet allowed the locus of manufacture to be established irrefutably. Spanish grandees the compatriots of Cervantes comprised much of the market for Brussels weavers. Nonetheless, in order to address a technical, decorative demand of fabrication, the creators of the series did not attempt to depict a literal reading of the celebrated novel. Thus, the magnificent landscapes in the pieces do not recall so much the sultry terrain of Lamanche as they do the parks and pavilions of Versailles, and the character costumes and overall playful mood of the scenes retell this tragicomic masterpiece of world literature in a manner reflecting the frivolous Rococo eighteenth century zeitgeist.
Source: Khanenko museum website and articles and visuals from museum tour written by Olena Zhivkova translated by Illya Rakos
The Carracci were a Bolognese family of artists that played an instrumental role in bringing forth the art movement known as the Baroque. Brothers Annibale (1560–1609) and Agostino (1557–1602) along with their cousin Ludovico (1555–1619) worked collaboratively on art works and art theories pertaining to the Baroque style.
Annibale Carracci 'Quo Vadis, Domine’ at The National Gallery, London. This incident is not described in the New Testament and is rarely depicted in painting. According to tradition, during the persecutions under Nero, Saint Peter fled from Rome and on the Appian Way encountered a vision of Christ bearing his Cross. In answer to Saint Peter's question 'Lord, where are you going?', Christ replied that he was going to Rome to be crucified a second time. Saint Peter himself then returned to Rome, where he was later martyred. This painting was commissioned by Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, who rewarded the artist with a gold chain. It is recorded as being in the Aldobrandini Collection in 1603.
The Carracci was equally important in their influence on the development of Italian painting as Caravaggio. They were responsible for founding in Bologna and Rome the school which was known first as the Accademia del Naturale and later as the Accademia del Naturale and later as the Academia deli Incamminati, and which at one time conformed to the ideals of the Baroque and the Counter Reformation.
If unlike Caravaggio they hardly exerted revolutionary influences, it must also be remembered that the charge of eclecticism in this school which was the verdict of old-fashioned criticism can no longer be accepted. The Carracci went beyond mere virtuosity to express lively, intimate sentiments, inspired by a genuine, fresh religious faith. Lodovico Carracci certainly did not forget Correggio's Venetian naturalism and sensuality but he gave these qualities the dramatic force and action which marked the dividing line between Baroque and Mannerist painting. Of the three Carracci, Ludovico remained specially close to the spirit of the Counter Reformation. His seriousness, his ever-apparent carefulness, and his emphatic style are all evident in the Madonna of the Scalzi, in the Martyrdom of St Ursula (both in the Pinacoteca, Bologna), and in the Christ and the Canaanite Woman (Brera, Milan) Annibale Carracci first appeared in Rome in I 604, when he started the decoration of the gallery of the Palazzo Farnese, the first important chapter in the history of Baroque painting. Narrative and imagination are the keynotes of his mood, and his poetic feeling has been compared with that of Tasso's Aminta, because of his spontaneous passion for nature. With him, too, the spectacular becomes pastoral. Agostino Carracci, nearest to him in age, was no more than an interpreter: the creator of the grand style of the Palazzo Farnese was Annibale Allegoricalsubjects, such as the war between divine love and earthly love, were simply an excuse for Annibale for imbuing everything with the vigour of nature. Ariadne, Bacchus, Mercury are real creatures, warm and passionate, surrounded by bands of putti who run about on earth and fly in the heavens to symbolise the perpetuity of human life. Of Annibale's paintings, it is sufficient to mention the charming Flight into Egypt (Doria Pamphili Gallery Rome), in which the sacred story takes on human interest in the way the Virgin turns back towards St Joseph, while the buildings in the background, bathed in the light of the setting sun, give way to lush green fields and trees. The influence of the Carracci was enormous, even more widespread than that of Caravaggio, and it was in Emilia above all that the trend con- tinued. Bartolomeo Schedoni renewed the interest in composition, stressing the imitative gestures of the main figures. Guido Reni (1575-1642) presented a much wider variety of interest and output. He was a great portraitist, as in the superb portrait of his mother (Pinacoteca, Bologna but he preferred more ambitious themes. In Hippomenes and Atalanta (Capodimonte Museum, Naples) Baroque painting perfected the shape diagonal composition in the glow of a magic light. After painting what was probably too many devotional subjects during the course of his life, Guido Reni, in his late period, discovered a new mastery, and softened his outlines with delicate touches of light. Domenico Zampieri I 164 I), known as Domenichino, was a great and captivating landscapist, but he introduced a more scholastic note to his altarpieces. Another pupil of Lodovico Carracci, Francesco Barbieri known as Guercino also painted complicated sacred compositions, but showed himself to be a master of decorative work in his Aurora on the ceiling of the Casino Ludovisi in Rome. In the art of Emilia in the 17th century the Bibiena family Ferdinando, Francesco and, in the 18th century, Carlo stands in a class of its own. Scene painters, masters of architectural trompe l'oeil, and inventors of stage machinery, they served the Farnese family at Parma and Piacenza in preparing revels and spectacles.
Source: THE GOLDEN HISTORY OF ART, Gina Pischel, The National Gallery website, Scottish National Gallery website, The Fine Art Museum of San Fransisco website.
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